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com , Gibbs sought to identify if URT strategies were utilized and if so, which ones. Even more interesting is the issue of privacy and security. Gibbs remarked that security issues were the most important factor that influenced uncertainty reduction behaviors Gibbs et al, , p.
Basically, the extent to which URT applied to the results was based on security issues. As users were concerned with who they were communicating with, they engaged in more information seeking strategies.
There were also other notable results. In addition to information seeking behavior, users also tended to utilize warranting reducing uncertainty and overcoming security concerns.
This could be accounted for by the fact that within the realm of online dating, the users intend to develop FtF relationships over time. Indeed, this increased the overall use of uncertainty reduction strategies. Consequently, these warranting practices mean that security was a major issue. As expected, users who engaged in these strategies tended to disclose more personal information to the other user. Moreover, contextual clues were also used to reduce uncertainty and find out about the potential mates they were communicating with.
Thus, although visual cues were not there and users were communicating randomly, similar principles of URT still did apply. Users not only disclosed more information as they used more strategies, but they also tended to value privacy concerns more.
In fact, the issue of privacy is one of the major differences from CMC within other social networks like Facebook. Gibbs also remarked that because users do not have access to mutual friends as they would in Facebook, considering potential partners required a much more in depth process of reducing uncertainty Gibbs et al, , p. Indeed, predicting the level of self disclosure that users participated in was directly correlated to the privacy-related concerns of online dating sites.
Thus, since URT strategies mitigated these concerns, many users who reported success in online dating engaged in these strategies quite often. Consequently, we can see that while the Facebook environment is different from online dating sites, users still engaged in similar strategies, albeit in different levels of intensity. Gibbs also reported that although higher self-disclosure in online dating led to greater perceived success, her findings suggest that there are numerous key distinctions in the type of self-disclosure that was utilized.
com members. As users have a choice as to what information they divulge, they can monitor the image that they project on potential partners.
Interestingly, users did not always portray themselves in the most positive light as originally anticipated. In fact, while many users reported to be frankly honest for negative traits, this was detrimental to the perception of the other person. This was accounted for by Gibbs with the hypothesis that users anticipated a future FtF interaction and did not want to take the risk of being caught lying Gibbs, , p.
Self Presentation success, on the other hand, was attributed to positive self disclosure. In relation to URT, we see that users who perceived successful relationships did in fact disclose more information as the interaction went on.
However, the type of disclosure was the major distinction. Users who portrayed themselves more positively experienced more success in contrast to users who were more honest with negative characteristics. To recapitulate, the realm of online dating gives wonderful opportunity to research how FtF interaction theories like URT apply in CMC contexts. Drawing on early research from Berger and Calabrese , information seeking and predictability are strategies that helped people reduce uncertainty about people they meet in person.
Moreover, Gibbs et al also argued that since users tend to divulge information at the same rate as the other person, more open communication is the result of successful strategies that have reduced uncertainty about the other person. In a demographic context, Gudykunst argued that there were no major differences in how both men and women reduced uncertainty.
However, research papers did suggest that blacks tended to practice more interrogation than whites. Despite unflattering research about how the internet fostered a hostile environment, the development of online relationships was quite common. Many of these even eventually led to a FtF interaction. As visual cues were absent, users improvised by offering textual cues like smileys. This made the overall impersonal experience much more humanesqe. According to Sheldon , Facebook interactions applied well to URT.
As users interacted more, their level of uncertainty decreased. Furthermore, URT was also supported by the fact that respondents claimed that they could predict the behavior of their Facebook friends whom they interacted with the most.
In terms of online dating, sites like eHarmony were devised with scientific principles of human interaction in mind. Their Guided Communication process allowed for introductions based on compatibility criteria. Communication was also heavily mediated and private so that users could carry out their uncertainty reduction strategies with ease. According to Gibbs , CMC on Match. com was highly relevant to URT. Because privacy and security were primary concerns, users tended to utilize uncertainty reduction strategies to get to know their matches.
For instance, users tended to disclose more information as the other person divulged theirs. Another common practice was warranting, or using third party tools like Google searches, other friends or the internet in general to find out more about their potential partners.
This information seeking strategy also heavily supported URT. Finally, users who used these strategies tended to have more success in developing better relationships. However, it is important to note that the type of information shared was also important in online dating success. According to Gibbs , users experienced higher levels of perceived success when only positive information was disclosed.
This was most likely true because users that interacted with one another anticipated a FtF encounter in which their lies would potentially be exposed. As technology has forced how we communicate and find mates to change rapidly, classical theories on interaction like URT still apply. Even with the absence of visual cues, users within a controlled environment still tended to exhibit behavior similar to FtF interaction. Most notably, information seeking strategies and disclosure based on mutual openness were highly consistent trends.
This suggests that even though we communicate in different contexts, the same basic premises still apply. People still use relevant cues and specific strategies to reduce uncertainty and decide if they want to pursue interaction with individuals. Finally, the help of mediated environments like eHarmony and Match. com offers support that meaningful relationships can be found using CMC. About eHarmony.
Dawkins, M. How it's Done: Using Hitch as a Guide to Uncertainty Reduction Theory. Communication Teacher, 24 3 , Gibbs, J. First Comes Love, Then Comes Google: An Investigation of Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Self-Disclosure in Online Dating.
Communication Research, 38 1 , g Self-Presentation in Online Personals : The Role of Anticipated Future Interaction, Self-Disclosure, and Perceived Success in Internet Dating. Communication Research, 33 2 , Griffin, E.
A first look at communication theory 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Gudykunst, W. The Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Dyadic Composition on Uncertainty Reduction in Initial Interactions. Journal of Black Studies, 18 2 , Indicating mate preferences by mixing survey and process-generated data. The case of attitudes and behaviour in online mate search by Jan Skopek.
Elective Affinities 2. A Bourdieusian Approach to Couple Formation and the Methodology of E-Dating by Andreas Schmitz.
Do Women Pick up lies before Men? The Association between Gender, Deception Patterns, and Detection Modes in Online Dating by Andreas Schmitz. Virtual relationships between the sexes in the context of rela-tional methodology. Reflections on a sociology of digital mate choice. by Andreas Schmitz. Download Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. Translate PDF.
Current key capital market data on digital dating services amounts to a market volume of million euros in Germany, million dollars in the United States, and an amount of four billion US dollars worldwide1. This economic dimension is associated with massive advertising campaigns, increasing media discourse and the increasing relevance of online dating in contemporary couple formation. The success of online dating essentially stems from the simple and effective access to mating platforms.
Two different forms of digital dating, and accordingly two different business models, exist on the online dating market. Between these two poles, there are numerous mixed forms depending on the par- ticular business model. The booming development of online dating is coupled with an in- creasing differentiation of the digital dating market itself, ranging from services for a gen- eral audience to very special niches e. services for people preferring specific religious affiliations, specific ethnic groups, or age brackets and from services for finding a long- term partner to services to look for a sexual affair.
It comes as no surprise that the scientific interest in this field has also increased sub- stantially. Usually, the aim is to gain insights that can be applied to hu- man mating in other contexts. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, Schmitz: Online dating be a partner market sui generis, as the dating process implies a specific computer- mediated communication.
A third aspect 3 is the critical reception of the phenomenon of online dating and the analysis of its recursive effects on the meaning of romance as well as on society at large. The first research stream highlights the methodological dimension of online dating.
Blossfeld points to the fact that, with new research designs like the online dating de- sign Schmitz et al. The online dating design is characterized by the fact that data of individual choices as well as interactional processes are recorded with- out obtrusive observational effects.
This web-generated process data is produced by the in- ter- actions of partner seekers and not by artificial choice or interaction situations. The spe- cial advantage for social research is that the data can be used to quantitatively analyse the interplay of opportunity structures and individual choice over the course of early relation- ship developments.
Thus, the online dating design allows for an exact reconstruction of mat- ing processes without the problem of post-hoc interpretations based on marriage records or subjective fallacies due to questionnaire data.
In recent times, a growing body of research has focused on these new opportunities of recording and analysing digital interactions on online dating platforms. The first empirical analyses of web-based process data of a dating platform were performed by Fiore and Donath , Hitsch et al.
These works provided insights into the association between profile characteristics and contact patterns, confirming findings of traditional mate search, such as male preferences for at- tractiveness or female preferences for social status. Skopek , in press analysed first contact patterns in online dating that showed the relevance of educational homophily in contact behaviour.
However, the analytical potential of web-generated process data is by no means exhausted. The use of such data is not yet common within the social sciences. The primary problem is that access to such data sources depends on cooperation with pri- vate companies and requires advanced data management skills.
The second research stream takes into account that meeting and interacting online is ac- companied by context-specific characteristics that differ from traditional forms and hence affect the character of the mating process itself cp. Bergström Interactions and com- munications on an online dating platform take place in an anonymous context with low so- cial control and low potential for sanctions as opposed to traditional contexts, such as work- ing environments, educational institutions or personal leisure networks.
Another relevant difference to traditional mating markets is that in this field, meeting and mating is the pri- mary and dominant goal of agency, as opposed to the more traditional contexts where meet- ing and mating is often an unintended side-product of the actual practice in a task-specific context.
As a consequence, users of dating platforms jointly create an intense competition for potential mates. Together with the user´s extended control and necessities of self- presentation in online profiles, an increasing risk of deception emerges, e. The problem of strategic self- and misrep- resentation found particular attention in the work of Ellison et al. A third research stream presents itself in the critical reception of this new phenome- non and a discussion of its negative effects on the general mating process and on soci- ety.
Its proponents contend that online-dating cannot solely be examined by means of its new research possibilities or as an endogenous phenomenon, but also in terms of its socie- tal consequences. The authors of this special issue present work that cover these different approaches. The contribution by Skopek, Schmitz and Blossfeld to this issue uses the potential of both online survey data and web-generated process data to explain mating preferences.
While preferences themselves are usually a concept for the explanation of behaviour, this article shows that mating dispositions can be understood as a function of one s position in the field.
The article by Zillmann, Schmitz and Blossfeld also refers to the notion and concept of human market value and its empirical implications for the practice of mate search. In their paper, they analyse deceptive behavior in the profile presentation of online dating sites. Zillmann et al. show that patterns of deceptive self- presentation depend on one´s field position in two ways. First, actual or perceived disad- vantages in one characteristic can lead actors to misrepresent themselves with regard to this particular characteristic.
Secondly, disadvantages in one characteristic can be com- pensated by advantages in other characteristics. In her contribution, Bergström questions the association commonly drawn between heterosexual online dating and the search for long-term relationships.
Fur- thermore, she highlights how meeting online comes along with a new dating scenario that seems to favour sexual short-term relationships. Dröge and Voirol refer to the research stream of critical reception of online dating, as promoted by Eva Illouz. In addition, they ana- lyse how these two spheres occur in the field of online dating.
On an empirical basis of qualitative interviews, they assess the resulting problem of how actors solve the tension of ambivalence between rational and romantic orientations in their practice of dating sites usage. Schmitz: Online dating The last article of this special issue addresses a general audience. Schmitz, Sachse- Thürer, Zillmann and Blossfeld look into the subject of beliefs about online dating.
Using different common stereotypes, they present empirical facts in order to test whether or not these beliefs are supported by data. Based on a broad range of analyses using different sources of data, they assess the adequacy of beliefs on finding a mate via the internet in Germany. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
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The gendered dynamics of age preferences — Empirical evidence from online dating. Who contacts whom? Educational homophily in online mate selection.
Whereas many users worldwide embed online dating into their everyday lives quite naturally, the field of mass media in particular still treats it as a peculiar subject.
In the following section, the online dating phenomenon will first be embedded within a historical context. In the context of different long-term societal developments, online dating may be well received as a logical consequence of modernity rather than as an anomaly or singularity. Subsequently, the basic principles of online dating and its societal prevalence will be discussed.
In the next step, societal diagnoses of online dating, ranging from euphoric to dysphoric reactions, will be outlined. Finally, research will be reviewed that analyzes processes on online dating platforms, and it will be shown that models of individual rational choice play a dominant role in empirical research.
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. However, the theoretical challenge that online daters may be confronted with in their practices of using a dating site — the contradictions between romantic ideals and rational calculation — is not a unique feature of online dating, but has been diagnosed by Habermas as early as for modern mating in general.
The data used stems from the PAIRFAM survey. This survey is being coordinated by Bernhard Nauck, Johannes Huinink, Josef Brüderl, and Sabine Walper see Huinink, Brüderl, Nauck, Walper, Castiglioni, and Feldhaus The panel is receiving long-term funding from the German Research Foundation DFG.
Users may encounter a potential mate offline and use a social network as an opportunity for a second contact, etc. Accordingly, one can assume that a certain number of respondents will interpret sites such as Facebook as a natural feature of their everyday friendship network.
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Pressemitteilung Nr. Finkel, E.
Research Article Summary Online dating sites frequently claim that they have fundamentally altered the dating landscape for the better. This article employs psychological science to examine (a) whether online dating is fundamentally different from conventional offline dating and (b) whether online dating promotes better romantic outcomes than · Abstract. Online dating is the process of initiating romantic relationships using dating Web sites. Online dating services require users to describe themselves through profiles, and either allow users to contact potential mates directly, or use proprietary algorithms to match them with suitable partners. Research shows that about a third of · PDF | Although, uncommitted dating via online apps is widespread, most people find value in long-term, trusting relationships. From a social and | Find, read and cite all the research you need Ultius. Apr. This is a blog on computer mediated communication and online dating. The following sample research paper shows how those who engage in online dating undergo a sociological process of reducing uncertainty. Social networking sites have shown to be the main driving force behind online dating and much research has done been · Download Pdf. Export Citation. Add to favorites. Share. Track Citation. Article Metrics. Reprints. Permissions. Online Dating: A Critical Analysis From the Perspective of Psychological Science Show all authors. Eli J. Finkel 1. Eli J. Finkel. Northwestern University See all articles by this author. Search Google Scholar for this author, Paul W. Eastwick 2. Paul 1In this light, our focus on inferring revealed preferences from the actions of dating site users may be seen as akin to implicit association tests (IATs) used in social psychology to study racial attitudes and ... read more
College essay Research paper Capstone project Dissertation Thesis More services. Most notably, information seeking strategies and disclosure based on mutual openness were highly consistent trends. Source: papers. A general view of the process of meeting individuals and how communication is facilitated will be offered by the eHarmony website eHarmony, N. html Copy. In: Asso- ciation for Computing Machinery Eds.Institutionalized individualism and its social and political consequences. Overall, the articles of this special issue illustrate why online dating has become a re- search topic of particular interest in social sciences. Separating fact from fiction: An examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating. As users interacted more, their level of uncertainty decreased. Contemporary beliefs online dating research pdf empirical findings. Remember me on this computer. Interactions and com- munications on an online dating platform take place in an anonymous context with low so- cial control and low potential for sanctions as opposed to traditional contexts, such as work- ing environments, educational institutions or personal leisure networks, online dating research pdf.